attitudes and practices that result in discrimination against people with (dis)abilities. Ableism can manifest in physical barriers such as inaccessible facilities, barriers to learning and educational success such as curricular materials that are challenging to access, and social barriers such as negative attitudes towards people with disabilities

Equitable systems for students with visible and invisible conditions that may impact access to education. Visible conditions (including walking or seeing) and invisible conditions (Including individual learning requirements or health status) require thoughtful consideration. For faculty, providing accommodations may include, for example, extra time for tests or special tools and adjustments to support equitable participation. By incorporating these measures in compliance with laws like the Americans with Disabilities Act, we contribute to an inclusive learning environment where everyone, regardless of their bodies or minds, has an equal opportunity to thrive.

attitudes, beliefs, and practices based in the ideology that an age group (young or old) is inferior, which can lead to unequal opportunities, resources, and power. Ageism can manifest against younger or older people.


every individuals’ sense of affinity at the college in which everyone feels welcomed, respected, relevant, and that their cultural assets and backgrounds are valued

attitudes, beliefs, and practices based in the ideology that some social or economic classes are superior to others. Classism can lead to unequal opportunities, resources, and power for individuals and entire classes, ultimately reproducing the existing social class structure


attitudes, beliefs, and practices that favor people with lighter skin over those with darker skin. Colorism can occur within or between racial/ethnic groups.

learning facilitation that affirms students’ cultures and situates them as assets to learning. Culturally responsive teachers continuously reflect on their own biases and instructional practices in order to meet the continuously emerging needs of learners

the beliefs, values, norms, language, ways of knowing, institutions, and material items of a social group; institutionally, culture can be used to wield power to perpetuate inequities or work on eliminating them

unequal treatment of people based on categorization of personal or group characteristics due to prejudice; a person can discriminate even if they do not hold the prejudice themself, but have reason to perpetuate a discriminatory system

varied characteristics that exist in individual and group identities or classifications leading to human hierarchy, including but not limited to: race, gender, social class, ethnicity, sexual orientation, religion, language, or ability

the evenly weighted distribution of resources and opportunities. Equality in educational practice can happen without considering the power of groups or individuals that have caused inequality in the first place; however, equality in practice without considering the needs of all can have the effect of perpetuating or increasing harm.


the continual process of looking for and removing things that create disparity. Equity requires providing people what they need to succeed in the proportion to which they need it. Equity can not be achieved with a neutral approach. Working for equity involves actively addressing processes, dynamics, systems, and mindsets that often go unquestioned.

attitudes, beliefs, and practices based on the assumption that heterosexuality is the only acceptable sexual orientation. Heterosexism manifests in the form of policies and practices that exclude discriminate against, bully, or harass people who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer or two spirit (LBGTQ2S+)

attitudes, beliefs, and practices based in the ideology that one ethnic group is superior or inferior. Ethnocentrism perpetuates historically embedded systems of dominance, power, and oppression. In the US, ethnocentrism is based in the erroneous idea that people from some cultures find success because other cultures are deficient or lack something

unconsciously held attitudes or beliefs about social groups and their members. Every unfavorable implicit bias has associated with it a favorable bias of another group or its members

a process where locations that were previously affordable to live in become unaffordable due to market trends

the intentional and ongoing effort by the college to foster empowered participation by all people and groups; especially those that were historically or are presently marginalized. Inclusion is achieved through individual and systemic action.

creating, adjusting, or remaking systems in order to provide equitable access to tools and opportunities


genuine everyday messages of support, validation, recognition, friendliness, and safety; microaffirmations help to create a climate where everyone feels safe and that they belong

everyday slights, insults, putdowns, invalidations, and offensive behaviors that people experience in daily interactions with generally well-intentioned individuals who might be unaware that they’ve engaged in demeaning ways. (adapted from Sue et al., 2007.)

Context based in how individual social position and power shape the way our identities interact in the learning spaces

preconceived ideas based consciously or unconsciously in stereotypes. Stereotypes can be favorable or unfavorable and often lead to discriminatory actions.


attitudes, beliefs, and practices based in the ideology that one racial category is superior or inferior. Racism perpetuates historically embedded systems of dominance, power, and oppression. In the US, racism is based in notions of white supremacy and perpetuates its legacy

attitudes, beliefs, and practices based in the ideology that one sex is superior to others. Sexism perpetuates historically embedded systems of dominance, power, and oppression. 

the inclusion of a relatively small amount of people with marginalized identities into previously inaccessible areas, so that the dominant group can appear to be diverse. Tokenism has the effect of perpetuating systems of dominance, power, and oppression


the irrational or unjustified fear of transgender people. Transphobia includes negative attitudes, beliefs, and practices, and results in the denial of rights, access, and safety to transgender people.

an approach that guides development of all aspects of the physical and virtual learning environment (teaching practices, curriculum, assessment, student services, facilities). This approach centers accessibility for everyone, not only for people with accommodations.


fear of the other. Xenophobia is a tactic often relied on by people who desire power in order to increase the number of people who support them. Xenophobia is commonly directed in this way towards people belonging to historically marginalized groups.

BIPoC - Black, Indigenous, People of Color

DACA - Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals, a US immigration policy through which people can receive a renewable two-year period of relief from deportation and become eligible for a work permit

DEIB - Diversity, Equity, Inclusion, Belonging

HSI - Hispanic Serving Institution, an institution where at least 25% of students identify as Hispanic

LGBTQ2S+ - Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans*, Queer, 2 Spirit, Plus

Plus: including Intersex, Asexual, Pansexual, Nonbinary, and all arising identities.

**This list is not comprehensive and does not include all identities.