# Intermediate Algebra

#### Prerequisites

MTH 65 and placement into WR 115

## Course Description

Explores functions graphically and symbolically with an emphasis on function notation. Investigate functions, equations, and graphs involving quadratic, rational, radical, and absolute value expressions. Technology is integrated throughout. Graphing calculator required. Prerequisites: MTH 65 and placement into WR 115. Audit available.

## Intended Outcomes

2. Recognize connections between graphical and algebraic representations in academic and non-academic settings. Interpret graphs in academic and non-academic contexts.
3. Be successful in future coursework that requires the use of algebraic concepts and an understanding of functions.

## Outcome Assessment Strategies

Assessment shall include:

1. The following topics must be assessed in a closed-book, no-note, no-calculator setting:
1. Finding the equation of the linear function given two ordered pairs stated using function notation
2. Simplifying rational expressions
3. Solving rational equations
4. Solving radical equations
5. Graphing quadratic functions
6. Determining the domain of radical and rational functions
7. Evaluating algebraic expressions that include function notation
2. At least two proctored closed-book, no-note examinations, one of which is the comprehensive final. These exams must consist primarily of free response questions although a limited number of multiple choice and/or fill in the blank questions may be used where appropriate.
3. Assessment must include evaluation of the student’s ability to arrive at correct and appropriate conclusions using proper mathematical procedures and proper mathematical notation. Additionally, each student must be assessed on their ability to use appropriate organizational strategies and their ability to write conclusions appropriate to the problem.
4. At least two of the following additional measures:
2. Quizzes
3. Group projects
4. Individual projects
5. In-class activities
5. Optional additional measures may include:
1. Attendance
2. Portfolios
3. Individual student conferences
4. In-class participation

## Course Content (Themes, Concepts, Issues and Skills)

#### Themes

1. Functions and function notation.
2. Functions represented as graphs, tables, equations and in words.
3. Connection between symbolic and graphical representations.
4. Algebraic simplification of expressions and solving of equations.
5. Problem solving and modeling, interpreting results in practical terms.
6. Language of graphs.

#### Skills

1. CALCULATOR (integrated throughout the course)
1.1. Use the home screen carry out arithmetic operations
1.2. Use the calculator's table feature to explore functions
1.3. Graph functions
1.3.1. Input the appropriate window settings to view the graph
1.3.2. Use calculation tools
1.3.2.1. Value
1.3.2.2. Zero
1.3.2.3. Maximum
1.3.2.4. Minimum
1.3.2.5. Intersect
1.4. Understand that the calculator has limitations

2. FUNCTIONS
2.1. Understand and apply the definition of function.
2.2. Determine whether one quantity is a function of another algebraically, graphically, numerically and within real life contexts by applying the definition of a function.
2.3. Domain
2.3.1. Understand the definition of domain (the set of all possible inputs).
2.3.2. Determine the domain of functions represented graphically, algebraically, numerically and verbally.
2.3.3. Represent the domain in both interval and set notation, where appropriate.
2.3.4. Apply unions and intersections ("and" and "or") when finding and stating the domain of functions.
2.3.5. Understand how the context of a function used as a model can limit the domain.
2.4. Range
2.4.1. Understand the definition of range (set of all possible outputs).
2.4.2. Determine the range of functions represented graphically, numerically and verbally.
2.4.3. Represent the range in interval and set notation, where appropriate.
2.5. Function notation
2.5.1. Evaluate functions with given inputs using function notation where functions are represented graphically, algebraically, numerically and verbally (e.g. evaluate f(7)).
2.5.2. Algebraically simplify and distinguish between different examples such as f(x)+2, f(x+2), 3f(x) and f(3x).
2.5.3. Interpret f(a)=b in the appropriate context (e.g. interpret f(3)=5 where f  models a real-world function).
2.5.4. Solve function equations where functions are represented graphically, algebraically, numerically and verbally (i.e. solve f(x)=b for x and solve f(x)=g(x) for x where f and g should include but not be limited to linear functions, quadratic functions, and absolute value functions).
2.5.5. Solve function inequalities algebraically (i.e. f(x)>b, f(x)>g(x), and a<f(x)<b where f and g are linear functions and f(x)>b and f(x)<b where f is an absolute value function).
2.5.6. Solve function inequalities graphically (i.e. f(x)>b, f(x)>g(x), and a<f(x)<b where f and g should include but not be limited to linear functions, and f(x)>b for quadratic and absolute value functions).
2.6. Graphs of functions
2.6.1. Use the language of graphs and understand how to present answers to questions based on the graph (i.e. read the x value of an intersection to solve an equation and understand that f(2) is a number not a point).
2.6.2. Determine function values, solve equations and inequalities, and find domain and range given a graph.
2.7. Apply function notation to prerequisite skill of finding linear equations given two ordered pairs.

3.1. Recognize a quadratic equation given in standard form, vertex form and factored form.
3.2. Solve quadratic equations by completing the square.
3.3. Find complex solutions to quadratic equations by the quadratic formula or by completing the square.
3.3.1. Understand the graphical implications (i.e. when there is a complex number as a solution to a quadratic equation).
3.3.2. Interpret the meaning in the context of an application.
3.4. Quadratic functions in vertex form.
3.4.1. Graph a parabola after obtaining the vertex form of the equation by completing the square.
3.4.2. Given a quadratic function in vertex form or as a graph, observe the vertical shift and horizontal shift of the graph y=x2.
3.4.3. Connect graphing via vertex form with the prerequisite graphing methods (i.e. axis of symmetry, horizontal intercepts, vertex formula, vertical intercept, points found by symmetry).
3.5. Determine the domain and range of quadratic functions algebraically and graphically.
3.6. Applications.
3.6.1. Understanding in context: given a quadratic function in algebraic or graphical form find and interpret, including units, the meaning of the:
3.6.1.1. Vertex as a maximum or minimum
3.6.1.2. Vertical intercept
3.6.1.3. Zeroes/horizontal intercepts/roots
3.6.1.4. Inputs and outputs of functions (e.g. f(2) and f(x)=5).
3.6.2. Clearly define variables including appropriate units.
3.6.3. State conclusions to applied problems in complete sentences including appropriate units.
3.7. Explore quadratic functions graphically using the graphing calculator. Convey results using function notation. Examine the following features:
3.7.1. Vertex
3.7.2. Vertical intercept
3.7.3. Horizontal intercepts

4.1. Understand nth roots.
4.2. Determine the domain of radical functions with both even and odd roots algebraically and graphically.
4.3. Determine the range graphically.
4.4. Understand radicals as expressions with rational exponents and vice versa.
4.5. Use rational exponents to simplify radical expressions (See addendum).
4.6. Practice prerequisite skills of exponents rules in the context of rational exponents.

4.7. Rationalize denominators so students can recognize equivalent expressions (e.g. ).

4.8. Solve radical equations algebraically and graphically.
4.8.1. Verify solutions algebraically.
4.8.2. Understand that extraneous solutions found algebraically do not appear as solutions on the graph.
4.8.3. Solve literal radical equations for a specified variable.
4.9. Calculator
4.9.1. Approximate radicals as powers with rational exponents.
4.9.2. Find the domain and range of radical functions.
4.9.3. Solve radical equations graphically.
4.9.4. Use graphical solutions to check the validity of algebraic solutions.

5. RATIONAL FUNCTIONS
5.1. Determine the domain of rational functions algebraically and graphically.
5.2. Simplify rational functions, understanding that domain conditions lost during simplification MUST be noted.
5.3. Rewrite rational expressions by:
5.3.1. Canceling factors common to the numerator and denominator.
5.3.2. Multiplying
5.3.3. Dividing using both  and  notation.

5.3.3.1. Simplify the following cases where a, b, c, d represent real numbers, linear polynomials or quadratic polynomials:,  and . (See addendum).

5.3.5. Subtracting
5.3.6. Simplifying complex rational expressions.

5.3.6.1. The following forms of complex rational expressions shall be simplified: , and  where a, b, c, d, e, and f represent real numbers, linear polynomials in one variable, or quadratic polynomials in one variable. (See addendum).

5.4. Solve rational equations.
5.4.1. Check solutions algebraically.
5.5. Solve literal rational equations for a specified variable.
5.5.1. Introduce variables with subscripts.
5.6. Applications.
5.6.1. Solve distance, rate and time problems involving rational terms using well-defined variables and stating conclusions in complete sentences including appropriate units.
5.6.2. Solve problems involving work rates using well-defined variables and stating conclusions in complete sentences including appropriate units.